Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2011 to 2017

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2011 to 2017

Category : Environment and Gas
Published On : February  2011
Pages : 469

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Product Synopsis

WinterGreen Research announces that it has a new study on Stationary Fuel Cells. Stationary Fuel Cell markets grow as the technology supports smaller more diverse units. The new study has 469 pages and 175 tables and figures.

These markets are poised to grow based on the creation of new efficiencies available directly to campus environments needing distributed energy that is separate from the grid. New composite materials based on nanotechnology are providing specialized high temperature ceramics catalyst materials to make systems more cost effective are achieving consistent price declines throughout the forecast period.

Distributed generation (DG) refers to power generation at the point of consumption. Generating power on-site, rather than centrally, eliminates the cost, complexity, interdependencies, and inefficiencies associated with transmission and distribution. Like distributed computing (i.e. the PC) and distributed telephony (i.e. the mobile phone), distributed generation shifts control to the consumer.

Distributed energy generation is the core of renewable energy from wind and solar. These intermittent sources of renewable energy are only feasible if there is a reliable way to store the energy for use when the wind is not blowing and when it is dark out. Stationary fuel cells provide that.

The electricity from the renewable energy can be used to manufacture hydrogen in a campus environment. Future generations of stationary fuel cells including Bloom Energy’s energy servers offer the unique capacity to operate as an energy storage device, thus creating a bridge to a 100% renewable energy future.

Bloom Energy is a distributed generation solution that is clean and reliable and affordable all at the same time. Bloom's energy servers can produce clean energy 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, generating more electrons than intermittent solutions, and delivering faster payback and greater environmental benefits for the customer. DG systems require modest installations, sunny and provide consistent 24/7/365 load.

As distributed generation moves to the forefront of corporate consciousness, stationary fuel cells including Bloom Energy Servers are designed to meet the needs of economically and environmentally minded companies.

Renewable energy is intermittent and needs stationary fuel cells to achieve mainstream adoption as a stable power source. Wind and solar power cannot be stored except by using the energy derived from these sources to make hydrogen that can be stored. Most likely the wind and tide energy will be transported as electricity to a location where the hydrogen can be manufactured. It is far easier to transport electricity than to transport hydrogen.

Stationary fuel cell markets need government sponsorship. As government funding shifts from huge military obligations, a sustainable energy becomes to most compelling investment model for government sponsored development. Stationary Fuel Cells are a good technology in need of further investment to make the entire renewable energy spectrum competitive.

FuelCell Energy is positioned to offer ultra-clean and reliable power generation. A fuel cell power plant helps meet the needs of customers efficiently. Systems improve the air quality in a service territory. Fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electricity, heat, and water.

Direct FuelCell (DFC) power plants are designed to efficiently use fuels and provide renewable and ultra-clean baseload power. FuelCell Energy implements molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants that depend on electrolyte for large, high-temperature fuel cells. The electrolyte uses a liquid solution of lithium, sodium and/or potassium carbonates, soaked in a matrix material. They operate at 650 degrees C. They are generally large systems with power ranges that extend to 2 mW. Their large size and mass limits the technology to large stationary applications. Fuel Cell Energy uses a nickel catalyst.

FuelCell Energy stationary fuel cells are used in data centers, universities, commercial and institutional facilities. As an environmentally friendly power source, fuel cells are reliable, provide a consistent voltage output, run on various fuels, and produce both electricity and heat. Those advantages have led to stationary fuel cell installations in retail stores, telecommunication facilities, hospitals, and schools.

According to Susan Eustis, primary author of the study, “growth is spurred by the need to store the intermittent energy generated from renewable sources. Electricity generated from wind and solar can be stored as hydrogen and used in stationary fuel systems. Trends toward technology breakthroughs depend on investment in nanotechnology.”

Global demand for stationary fuel cells is projected to increase from $122.9 million in 2010 to $2.6 billion in 2017. Growth of stationary fuel cells is a function of the need to harness intermittent energy generated from renewable wind and solar energy sources. By using stationary fuel cells to address issues relating to intermittency an end to end energy system is achieved.

STATIONARY FUEL CELL MARKET SHARES AND MARKET FORECASTS

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Forecasts

Vision For The New Electrical Grid

Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Fuels Stationary Fuel Cell



1. STATIONARY FUEL CELL MARKET DYNAMICS AND MARKET DESCRIPTION

1.1 Distributed Power Generation

1.1.1 Distributed Clean and Continuous Power Generation

1.1.2 Benefits of Bloom Energy

1.1.3 Stationary Fuel Cell Technology

1.2 Industrialization Requires Sustainable, Highly Efficient Energy

1.2.1 Fuel Cell Cogeneration

1.2.2 Stationary Fuel Cells Address Global Energy Challenge

1.2.3 Petroleum

1.3 Value Of Export Market Electricity

1.4 Fuel Cell Operation

1.4.1 Fuel Cells Definition

1.4.2 Fuel Cell Insulating Nature Of The Electrolyte

1.4.3 Inconsistency Of Cell Performance

1.4.4 Fuel Cell Performance Improvements

1.4.5 Transition To Hydrogen

1.5 Fuel Environmental Issues

1.5.1 Environmental Benefits Of Using Fuel Cell Technology

1.5.2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

1.6 Battery Description

1.7 Fuel Cell Functional Characteristics

1.8 Water In A Fuel Cell System

1.9 Power Of A Fuel Cell

1.9.1 Gas Control

1.9.2 Temperature Control

1.10 Fuel Cell Converts Chemical Energy Directly Into Electricity And Heat

1.10.1 Types Of Fuel Cells

1.11 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology

1.11.1 Types Of Fuel Cells

1.11.2 Alkaline Fuel Cells

1.11.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

1.11.4 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells

1.11.5 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

1.11.6 PEM Technology

1.11.7 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells

1.11.8 PEM Fuel Cells

1.11.9 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell

1.11.10 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Membranes And Catalysts

1.11.11 Common Types Of Fuel Cells

1.12 Stationary Power Applications

1.12.1 Traditional Utility Electricity Generation

1.13 On Grid And Off Grid Issues

1.13.1 Stationary Public Or Commercial Buildings Fuel Cell Market

1.13.2 Distributed Power Generation

1.14 Impact Of Deregulation

1.14.1 Excess Domestic Capacity

1.14.2 Power Failures

1.15 Fuel Cell Issues

1.15.1 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

1.15.2 Fuel Cell Workings

1.15.3 Environmental Benefits Of Fuel Cells

1.15.4 Fuel-To-Electricity Efficiency

1.16 Boilers

1.16.1 Domestic Hot Water

1.16.2 Space Heating Loops

1.16.3 Absorption Cooling Thermal Loads

1.17 Fuel Cell Reliability

1.17.1 Power Quality

1.17.2 Licensing Schedules

1.17.3 Modularity

1.18 Fuel Cell Supply Infrastructure

1.19 Laws And Regulations

1.19.1 National Hydrogen Association

1.19.2 Military Solutions



2. STATIONARY FUEL CELL MARKET SHARES AND MARKET FORECASTS

2.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces

2.1.1 Platinum Catalysts

2.2 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares

2.2.1 FuelCell Energy (MCFC)

2.2.2 UTC Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs)

2.2.3 Ballard and IdaTech PEM

2.2.4 Bloom Energy (SOFC) Fuel Cell Comprised Of Many Flat Solid Ceramic Squares

2.2.5 Acumentrics

2.2.6 Rolls Royce SOFC Stationary Fuel Cell System

2.2.7 Delphi Corp Inexpensive 5-kW SOFC

2.3 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Forecasts

2.3.1 Vision For The New Electrical Grid

2.3.2 Fuel Cell Clean Air Permitting

2.3.3 MCFC Fuel Cell Market Forecasts

2.3.4 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)

2.3.5 Molten Carbonate Uses Nickel and Stainless Steel as Core Technology

2.4 SOFC Fuel Cell Forecasts

2.5 PAFC Fuel Cell Technology Forecasts

2.6 PEM Fuel Cell Technology Forecasts

2.6.1 PEM Telecom Fuel Cell Back Up Power Systems

2.6.2 Government Support for Fuel Cell Technology

2.6.3 PEMFC Efficiency

2.6.4 Challenges for PEMFC Systems

2.6.5 Operating Pressure

2.6.6 Long Term Operation

2.6.7 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM) Residential Market

2.7 MCFC Stationary Fuel Cell Market Analysis

2.7.1 Fuel Cell Technology 95% Combustion Efficiency Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)

2.7.2 Energy Market Forecasts

2.7.3 Competition For Distributed Generation Of Electricity

2.7.4 Stationary Fuel Cell Applications

2.7.5 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Stack Module MCFC

2.7.6 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Production Analysis Results

2.7.7 FuelCell Energy Cost Breakdown

2.7.8 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Stack Module

2.7.9 FuelCell Energy Materials Cost Reduction via Increased Power Density

2.7.10 Fuel Cell Energy Achieving Higher MCFC Power Density

2.8 SOFC Stationary Fuel Cell Markets

2.8.1 Bloom Energy SOFC

2.8.2 SOFC Methanol Fuel Cells, On The Anode Side, A Catalyst Breaks Methanol

2.8.3 Siemens SOFC Unfavorable Fuel Cell Market

Characteristics

2.9 UTC PAFC

2.9.1 PAFC

2.9.2 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Technology

2.9.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs)

2.10 PEM Membrane, Or Electrolyte

2.10.1 PEM Proton-Conducting Polymer Membrane, (The Electrolyte)

2.11 Delivered Energy Costs

2.11.1 Nanotechnology Platinum Surface Layer on Tungsten Substrate For Fuel Cell Catalyst

2.12 SOFC Fuel Cell Markets

2.12.1 Specialized Ceramics

2.13 PEM, SOFC, MCFC, and PAFC Stationary Fuel Cell Applications and Uses:

2.14 MCFC, SOFC, PEMFC Projected Cost Long Term

2.15 Stationary Fuel Cells Strengths and Weaknesses

2.16 Fuel Cell Return On Investment Analysis

2.17 Addressable Market

2.18 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Regional Analysis

2.18.1 Stationary Fuel Cells U.S.

2.18.2 Fuel Cells California

2.18.3 Regional Stationary Fuel Cell Competition

2.18.4 CPUC Recently Approved 6 Utility Owned Fuel Cell Projects

2.18.5 Stationary Fuel Cell Installations in California

2.18.6 California Fuel Cell Installations

2.18.7 Campus Fuel Cell Food Processing Agricultural Applications / Gills Onions Stationary Fuel Cells

2.18.8 Europe and Japan

2.18.9 Korea 2-112

2.18.10 European Photovoltaic Industry Association and Greenpeace Global Investments In Solar Photovoltaic Projects

2.18.11 German Stationary Fuel Cells

2.18.12 Japanese Sales Prospects

2.18.13 New Sunshine Project (Japan)

2.18.14 Fuel Cell Development in Japan

2.18.15 Fuel Cell Cogeneration in Japan

2.18.16 Tokyo-Based JGA Millennium Program,

2.18.17 Japanese Government Subsidies

2.18.18 Fuel Cell Cogeneration In Japan

2.18.19 Establishing Codes And Standards Are Very Important For Advancing Fuel Cell Systems In Japan

2.18.20 Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Prices



3. STATIONARY FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

3.1 Stationary Fuel Cells

3.2 PEM

3.3 Ballard

3.4 IdaTech

3.4.1 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs)

3.5 UTC PAFC

3.5.1 UTC Phosphoric Acid

3.5.2 UTC PureCell® System

3.5.3 UTC Product : The PureCell™ Model 400 Power Solution Features :

3.5.4 UTC PureComfort® Solutions

3.5.5 UTC PureComfort® Power Solutions Save Energy

3.5.6 UTC CO2 Emissions Reduction

3.5.7 UTC PureComfort® Power Solutions

3.6 Samsung Everland / UTC

3.7 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Power Plants

3.8 FuelCell Energy

3.8.1 FuelCell Energy Cost Breakdown

3.8.2 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Stack Module

3.8.3 FuelCell Energy Materials Cost Reduction via Increased Power Density

3.8.4 FuelCell Energy Balance-of-Plant Cost Reduction With Volume Production

3.8.5 FuelCell Energy Conditioning, Installation, and Commissioning

3.8.6 FuelCell Energy to Supply 1.4 MW Power Plant to a California Utility

3.8.7 FuelCell Energy Adding Power Generating Capacity At The Point Of Use Avoids Or Reduces Investment In The Transmission And Distribution System

3.8.8 FuelCell Energy DFC1500

3.8.9 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cells Within South Korean Renewable Portfolio

3.8.10 Enbridge and FuelCell Energy Partner

3.8.11 FuelCell Energy Power Plants

3.9 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

3.9.1 Next Generation SOFC

3.10 Siemens

3.10.1 Siemens Energy Technical Team Of Key Technology Development Partners That Includes Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd. (FCT)

3.10.2 Siemens Westinghouse Electric Company Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

3.11 General Electric Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

3.12 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

3.12.1 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

3.13 Rolls Royce Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

3.14 Bloom Energy Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

3.14.1 Bloom Energy Server Architecture

3.15 Acumentrics Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

3.15.1 Acumentrics Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells



4. STATIONARY FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY

4.1 Fuel Cells Offer An Economically Compelling Balance Of Attributes

4.2 Fuel Cell Type Of Electrolyte Used

4.2.1 PEM Fuel Cells

4.3 IdaTech Fuel Processing Technology

4.4 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC)

4.4.1 PAFC Platinum-Based Catalyst

4.5 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC)

4.5.1 FuelCell Energy Degradation of the Electrolyte Support

4.5.2 MCFC Stack Cost Analysis

4.5.3 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Results

4.6 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

4.6.1 SOFC Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrids

4.6.2 Acumetrics Tubular SOFC, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology

4.7 Fuel Reformer

4.7.1 Specialized Ceramics

4.7.2 Ceramic Fuel Cells

4.8 Fuel Cell Description

4.9 Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC)

4.10 Nanotechnology Enables Overcoming Stationary Fuel Cell Cost Barriers

4.10.1 DMFC Micro And Portable Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs

4.10.2 SOFC Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs:

4.10.3 MCFC Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs:

4.10.4 PAFC Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs:

4.11 Solar Energy Complements Fuel Cell Technology

4.12 DMFC Fuel Cell Already Viable Market

4.12.1 DMFC Micro And Portable Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs

4.12.2 Polymer-Electrolyte Membrane PEM

4.12.3 PEM Nano Metals And Alloys

4.12.4 PEM

4.13 Platinum Catalyst

4.13.1 Nanotechnology Platinum Surface Layer on Tungsten Substrate For Fuel Cell Catalyst

4.13.2 Nanotechnology Platinum Catalyst Mid Size

Stationary Fuel Cells

4.13.3 Water Electrolysis Technology

4.14 Fuel Cell Nickel Borate Catalyst

4.14.1 Fuel Cell High Cost Products

4.14.2 Development of Hydrogen Technologies Critical For The Growth Of The Fuel Cell Industry

4.14.3 PEM and SOFC For Home Units

4.15 PAFC and Stationary fuel cells

4.16 For MCFC:

4.17 For PAFC:

4.18 Fuel Cell Components

4.18.1 1 Fuel Processor (Reformer)

4.19 Fuel Cell Stack

4.20 Power Conditioner

4.21 Nano Composite Membranes

4.22 Pall Filtering of Hydrogen

4.23 IdaTech



5. STATIONARY FUEL CELL COMPANY PROFILES

5.1 Acumentrics

5.1.1 Acumentrics Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd Trusted Power Innovations

5.2 Ansaldo Fuel Cells

5.3 Ballard Power Systems

5.3.1 Ballard Power Systems / IdaTech LLC / ACME Group (Gurgaon, Haryana)

5.3.2 Ballard 2011 Business Outlook

5.3.3 Ballard 2010 Achievements

5.3.4 Growth Milestones

5.3.5 Ballard Path to Profitability

5.3.6 Ballard Key 2009 Achievements

5.3.7 Ballard Annual Highlights | Quarterly Highlights

5.3.8 How Ballard Fuel Cells Work

5.3.9 Ballard Expanded Single Fuel Cell

5.3.10 Ballard Hydrogen

5.4 Blasch Precision Ceramics

5.5 Bloom Energy

5.5.1 Adobe Powers San Jose Headquarters with Bloom Energy Fuel Cells

5.5.2 Bloom Energy / University Of Arizona NASA Mars Space Program

5.6 Delphi

5.6.1 Delphi Automotive LLP Revenue

5.6.2 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

5.7 Doosan Corporation

5.8 Enbridge

5.9 FuelCell Energy

5.9.1 FuelCell Energy Revenue 2010

5.9.2 FuelCell Energy Market Activity

5.9.3 FuelCell Energy Government Research and Development Contracts

5.9.4 FuelCell Energy Hydrogen Compression:

5.9.5 FuelCell Energy Versa Power Systems Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development:

5.9.6 FuelCell Energy

5.9.7 Fuelcell Energy Revenue

5.9.8 FuelCell Energy DFC 3000 Cost Savings

5.9.9 FuelCell Energy Production and Delivery Capabilities

5.9.10 FuelCell Energy Food & Beverage Processing

5.9.11 FuelCell Energy Strategic Alliances and Market Development Agreements

5.10 Fuel Cell Technologies

5.11 Fuji

5.12 GE

5.12.1 GE Unmanned Aircraft

5.12.2 GE HPGS

5.13 HydroGen LLC

5.14 IdaTech

5.14.1 IdaTech acquires Plug Power’s LPG Off-Grid, Backup Power Stationary Product Lines

5.14.2 IdaTech Product Shipments

5.14.3 IdaTech Revenue 2010 IdaTech Financials 2007

5.14.4 IdaTech Wireless Communications Network Support

5.14.5 IdaTech Applications

5.14.6 IdaTech Wireline Communications Networks

5.14.7 IdaTech Highway

5.14.8 IdaTech Oil & Gas

5.14.9 IdaTech Military

5.14.10 IdaTech Telecom Wireless

5.14.11 IdaTech Telecom Wireline

5.14.12 IdaTech Railway & Highway

5.14.13 IdaTech UPS Application

5.15 Nuvera

5.16 POSCO Power

5.17 Samsung Everland

5.17.1 Samsung

5.17.2 Samsung Revenue 2010

5.18 Southern California Edison

5.19 United Technologies

5.19.1 UTC Power Fuel Cells And Power Systems

5.19.2 UTC 5-75

5.20 Versa Power Systems

5.20.1 Versa Systems Vision

5.20.2 Versa Systems Core Values

5.20.3 Versa Systems Solid Oxide Fuel Cells



List of Tables



Table ES-1

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces

Table ES-2

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Growth Drivers Worldwide

Figure ES-3

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, 2010

Figure ES-4

Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts,

Dollars, Worldwide, 2011-2017

Table 1-1

Methods Of Producing Energy

Table 1-2

Key Aspects Of Fuel Cell Stack Costs

Table 1-3

Fuel Cell Operation

Table 1-4

Fuel Cell Characteristics

Table 1-5

Fuel Cell Description

Table 1-6

Fuel Cell Categories

Table 1-7

Fuel Cell Performance Improvements

Table 1-8

Environmental Concerns Relating To Energy

Table 1-9

Environmental Benefits Of Using Fuel Cell Technology

Table 1-10

Fuel Cell Advantages Compared To Internal Combustion Engine

Table 1-10 (Continued)

Fuel Cell Advantages Compared To Internal Combustion Engine

Table 1-11

Low-carbon production systems

Table 1-12

Fuel Cell Functional Characteristics

Table 1-12 (Continued)

Fuel Cell Functional Characteristics

Table 1-13

Characteristics Of Water In Fuel Cells

Table 1-14

Types Of Fuel Cells

Table 1-15

Classes Of Fuel Cells

Table 1-16

Fuel Cell Applications

Table 1-17

Types Of Fuel Cells

Table 1-18

Classes Of Fuel Cells

Table 1-19

Fuel Cell Applications

Table 1-20

Alkaline Fuel Cell Features

Table 1-21

Phosphoric acid fuel cells applications

Table 1-22

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Features

Table 1-23

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells

Table 1-24

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Features

Table 1-25

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Functions

Table 1-25 (Continued)

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Functions

Table 1-26

Fuel Cell Issues

Table 1-27

Fuel Cell System

Table 1-28

Conceptual Operation of a Fuel Cell.

Table 1-29

Fuel Cell System Relative Efficiencies

Table 1-30

Fuel Cell Reliability Research And Development Issues

Table 2-1

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces

Table 2-2

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Growth Drivers Worldwide

Table 2-3

Worldwide Stationary Fuel Cell Market Segments

Figure 2-4

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, 2010

Table 2-5

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, 2010

Figure 2-6

FuelCell Energy electrochemical device

Figure 2-7

Bloom Energy Server

Figure 2-8

Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Dollars,

Worldwide, 2011-2017

Table 2-9

Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Dollars,

Worldwide, 2011-2017

Table 2-10

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Forces

Figure 2-11

Distributed Campus Environments For Stationary

Fuel Cells, Market Forecasts, Number, Worldwide, 2011-2017

Table 2-12

Stationary Fuel Cell Distributed Campus Environments

Market Forecasts Worldwide, 2011-2017

Table 2-13

Stationary Fuel Cell, SOFC, MCFC, PAFC, and PEM

Shipment Market Forecasts, Units and Dollars,

Worldwide, 2011-2017

Figure 2-14

Stationary Fuel Cell Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide,

2011-2017

Figure 2-15

Stationary MCFC Fuel Cell Market Forecasts, Worldwide,

Dollars, 2011-2017

Figure 2-16

Stationary MCFC Fuel Cell Market Forecasts, Worldwide,

Units, 2011-2017

Table 2-17

MCFC Technology Development Functions

Figure 2-18

Stationary SOFC Fuel Cell Market Forecasts, Dollars,

Worldwide, 2011-2017

Figure 2-19

Stationary Fuel Cell SOFC Market Forecasts, Number

Shipped, Worldwide, 2011-2017

Figure 2-20

Stationary PAFC Fuel Cell Market Forecasts, Dollars,

Worldwide, 2011-2017

Figure 2-21

Stationary PAFC Fuel Cell Market Shipments

Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2011-2017

Figure 2-22

Stationary Fuel Cell Proton Exchange

Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM) Market Forecasts, Dollars, 2011-2017

Figure 2-23

Stationary Fuel Cell Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)

Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2011-2017

Figure 2-24

FuelCell Energy 2.4 MW Fuel Cell Power

Plant Inchon, South Korea

Figure 2-25

Global demand for electric Power

Figure 2-26

Cost of Electricity Grid and Stationary Fuel Cell

Table 2-27

MCFC Stack Costs

Figure 2-28

Stationary Fuel Cell Applications

Table 2-29

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell R&D areas to be addressed

Table 2-30

Complete Fuel Cell Power Plant

Table 2-31

Opportunity for PAFC Cost Reductions Opportunity Area

Table 2-32

PAFC Stack Costs

Figure 2-33

Fuel Cell Image

Table 2-34

PEM Stack Costs

Figure 2-35

Delivered Energy Costs

Figure 2-36

Reducing Hydrogen Crossover Using Nanotechnology

Table 2-37

Ceramic Fuel Cells Advantages

Table 2-38

Stationary Fuel Cell Markets

Table 2-39

Projected Long-Term, Uninstalled Costs

Table 2-40

Stationary Fuel Cells Strengths and Weaknesses

Table 2-41

Cost Comparison of Available Technologies for a 5kW Plant

Table 2-41 (Continued)

Cost Comparison of Available Technologies for a 5kW Plant

Table 2-42

Stationary Fuel Cell Regional Market Segments, Dollars, 2010

Table 2-43

Stationary Fuel Cell Regional Market Segments, 2010

Figure 2-44

Stationary Fuel Cell Installations in California

Figure 2-44 (Continued)

Stationary Fuel Cell Installations in California

Figure 2-45

Efficient Pipeline Pressure Reduction

Table 2-46

Types Of Campus Fuel Cell Power Plants

Figure 2-47

FuelCell Energy 600 KW DFC, Gills Onions Oxnard, CA

Figure 2-48

Korean NRE New and Renewable Energy

Figure 2-49

Research & Development in NRE

Figure 2-50

Korean Local Plan for Promoting NRE

Figure 2-51

FuelCell Energy Environmental Tangible Benefits

Figure 2-52

Hybrid Electric Vehicles Costs

Figure 2-53

US Energy Costs

Figure 2-54

Hydrogen Cost From On Site Steam

Figure 2-55

German Bonus for Electricity Produced Through CHP Units

Table 2-56

Japanese Sales Prospects

Figure 3-1

Ballard Power Systems Cleargen Mulit-Megawatt Fuel Cell System

Figure 3-2

IdaTech Fuel Cell System

Table 3-3

IdaTech ElectraGen ME System Functions

Table 3-3 (Continued)

IdaTech ElectraGen ME System Functions

Table 3-4

UTC PureCell® Model 400 System Positioning

Table 3-5

UTC PureCell® Model 400 System Functions

Table 3-6

UTCPureCell® Model 400 Fuel Cell System Target Market

Figure 3-7

UTC Power fuel cells also qualify for LEED® (Leadership in

Energy and Environmental Design) points.

Table 3-8

UTC PureCell system Features

Figure 3-9

UTC Fuel cell Supplier To NASA For Space Missions

For Over 40 Years

Table 3-10

UTC Performance Characteristics POWER

Figure 3-11

UTC PureCell Solution Emissions

Table 3-12

UTC Stationary Fuel Cell Energy Efficiency Positioning

Table 3-13

UTC Microturbine Chiller/Heater and System Level Functions

Table 3-14

UTC stationary Fuel cell Benefits :

Table 3-15

UTC Stationary Fuel Cell Emissions Benefits

Table 3-16

UTC Stationary Fuel Cell Emissions CO2 Emissions

Reduction Calculations

Figure 3-17

UTC Pollutant Emissions Comparisons

Table 3-18

UTC PureComfort® Power Solutions

Figure 3-19

Fuel cell electrochemical device

Figure 3-20

Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) Power Plants Offer The

Highest Efficiency Which Is Key To Customer Value

Figure 3-21

FuelCell Energy 1 MW DFC California State

University - Northridge

Table 3-22

FuelCell Energy Cost Reduction Opportunities for the

DFC 1500 Power Plant Operating On Pipeline-Quality

Natural Gas

Figure 3-23

Enbridge and FuelCell Energy

Figure 3-24

Direct Fuel Cell Power Plant

Figure 3-25

Siemens: SOFC ( Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel cell ) SFC - 200

Figure 3-26

Siemens SOFC Rods

Figure 3-27

General Electric Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Figure 3-28

Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Table 3-29

Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Benefits

Table 3-30

Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Typical Applications

Figure 3-31

Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Transportation Application

Figure 3-32

Rolls Royce Fuel Cell Process

Table 3-33

Rolls Royce Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Features

Table 3-33 (Continued)

Rolls Royce Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Features

Table 3-34

Bloom Energy SOCF Fuel Cell Specifications

Table 3-34 (Continued)

Bloom Energy SOCF Fuel Cell Specifications

Figure 3-35

Bloom Energy Server

Table 3-36

Bloom Performance Is Enhanced By Modular Architecture

Table 3-37

Acumentrics Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Development Path

Table 3-38

Acumentrics Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Functions

Figure 3-39

Acumentrics Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Figure 4-1

Fuel Cells Offer An Economically Compelling Balance Of Attributes

Figure 4-2

Efficiency Differences Among Fuel Cell Technologies

Table 4-3

Fuel cell Types By T Electrolyte

Table 4-4

Opportunity for PAFC Cost Reductions Opportunity Area

Table 4-5

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell R&D areas to be addressed

Figure 4-6

MCFC Cost Components of Electricity vs. Fuel Cell Capital Cost

Figure 4-7

Siemens Westinghouse's 250-Kilowatt Atmospheric

Pressure Combined Heat And Power Fuel Cell System

Table 4-8

Ceramic Fuel Cells Advantages

Figure 4-9

Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Description (1)

Figure 4-10

Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Description (2)

Figure 4-11

Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Description (3)

Figure 4-12

Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Description (4)

Figure 4-13

Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Description (5)

Figure 4-14

Fuel Cell Flow Plates

Figure -4-15

Home Hydrogen Refueler

Figure 4-16

Fuel Cell Components

Figure4-17

How A Fuel Cell Works

Figure4-18

Stationary Fuel Cell Steam Reformer

Figure 4-19

Hydrogen Reformer Components

Figure 4-20

Fuel Processor (Reformer)

Figure 4-21

Reducing Hydrogen Crossover Using Nanotechnology

Figure 4-22

Comparison of the Performance of Nanocomposite Membranes

Figure 4-23

Catalytic Reformer and Refinery Hydrogen System

Table 5-1

Acumentrics Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd Rugged UPS™

Table 5-2

Acumentrics Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Figure 5-3

Ballard® Fuel Cell

Table 5-4

Ballard Hydrogen Systems

Table 5-5

Bloom Energy Customers

Figure 5-6

Enbridge Overview

Table 5-7

Enbridge Statistics

Figure 5-8

Enbridge Hybrid Fuel Cell

Table 5-9

FuelCell Energy Positioning

Figure 5-10

FuelCell Energy DFC 3000 Cost Savings

Table 5-11

FuelCell Energy Production and Delivery Capabilities

Figure 5-12

FuelCell Energy Production Capabilities

Table 5-13

FuelCell Energy Active Project Pipelines

Figure 5-14

FuelCell Energy Tangible Environmental Benefits

Figure 5-15

FuelCell Energy Efficiency Differences Between Technologies

Table 5-16

FuelCell Energy Markets

Figure 5-17

Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Fuel Cell Test Station QA

Testing Area

Figure 5-18

United Technologies Business Unit Revenues

Figure 5-19

Versa Systems Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Figure 5-20

Versa Systems Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology



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